Innocent of FEDOROVICh Annenskaya (1855-1909)
One of the main roles in the creative development of Akhmatova played a poet, translator and teacher Innocent Ann. Akhmatova noted that it was after reading the proofs of his "Cypress casket" in the early 1910s, "something understood in poetry." His teacher Ann also believed Gumilev, Osip Mandelstam and Boris Pasternak.
Born Innocent F. August 20, 1855 in Omsk, where his father, a prominent government official. In 1860, the family moved Annenskaya from Siberia to St. Petersburg. Innocent grew sickly child, because part of his high-school subjects are taught at home. Particularly interesting were his literature and history.
After the end of the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University Ann taught the literature of antiquity, ancient languages, the theory of literature. Early
1900s, he served as director of the Tsarskoye Selo school.
By the end of Ann's life has made a complete translation of the Greek playwright Euripides' tragedies.
At Ann's lyrics influenced the symbolism of the "accursed poets" Verlaine, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, but in general, his poems are sustained in Russian psychological tradition and different, "the desire for beautiful clarity." Its main creative challenge Ann saw in understanding the "sick and sensitive souls of our days."
In the early 1900s, were published three original tragedy Ann's based on ancient stories and a collection of poems "Quiet Songs" under the pseudonym "Nick. T o. "
Ann died suddenly on November 30, 1909 of a heart attack.
After the poet's death came two more collections - "Cypress Chest" and "The third book of poems," as well as "Bacchic drama" "Famira Kifared."
ALEXANDER UNIT (1880-1921)
Akhmatova attributed relationship with the Bloc, but this is not true. Akhmatova's memoirs have repeatedly denied this rumor, which arose in her opinion, her hostile emigre circles.
The truth is that Akhmatova treasured acquaintance with the Bloc, but saw him hardly more than ten times in my life, and that is mainly on people. However, the poets were poetic roll call. The unit was to Akhmatova's most vivid embodiment of the pre-revolutionary era.
Alexander Blok was born in 1880 into a noble family. As a child, he lived with his grandfather, a biologist, rector of St. Petersburg University of Andrei Beketov, who was trying to instill in the child a taste for classical literature and poetry. Corn fell in fertile soil - in five years, the boy was trying to express their thoughts through rhyme, and as a schoolboy, took the manuscript edition of the magazine.
As a young unit had a romantic appearance, and many found it similar to Apollo. His wife was the daughter of the famous poet, scientist Dmitri Mendeleev Love.
Blok's first book "Poems of a Beautiful Lady", released in 1904, met with loud criticism and sympathetic. The second book "Unexpected Joy" (1906) led to a break with the terms of the Block Andrei Bely and Sergei Solovyov, to whom he was close.
At the same time, Alexander Blok finally a thing of the symbolism. In the 1910s, his work is permeated with foreboding destruction of the world, the poet at the time called "the tragic tenor of the age."
After the revolution, Block chose instead writing new poems dwell in mournful silence and conduct theatrical work. The most significant work of the past, years - the poem "Twelve" - reflected the spirit of the poet with methane. Block died in August 1921 in Petrograd.
"Beauty is terrible" - you say -
You lazily nakinetsya
Spanish shawl over her shoulders,
Red Rose - in her hair.
"Beauty is simple" - you say -
Colorful shawl bungle
You hid the child,
Red rose - on the floor.
But, absently listening
Everyone said, sounding all around,
Are you sad to think about it
And firmly to himself:
"Not terrible, and not just me;
I'm not so terrible, so just
Kill, not just me,
So as not to know how life is terrible. "
Osip MANDELSHTAM (1891-1938)
Akhmatova, Mandelstam met in the "Tower" Vyacheslav Ivanov. They would, strictly friends. When in love Mandelstam, Akhmatova, in her words, "made several konfidentkoy it." Mandelstam was one of those people with whom Akhmatova, which had a subtle sense of humor, especially the "good laughing." In meetings poets began to speak in a special language that is understandable to them alone. At the time of his first arrest Osip, which occurred May 13, 1934, Akhmatova was visiting Mandelstam. This night is forever etched in her memory: security officers, searching the apartment, went straight from the manuscripts of poems, and behind the wall at the neighbors playing ukulele. In 1936, Akhmatova visited the disgraced poet in Voronezh, where he was in exile. At the time, such an act was equivalent to a civilian heroism.
Osip Mandelstam was born in 1891 in the family of a merchant of the first guild. In his youth, he studied at the School of Tenishev (then, by the way, sympathetic to the Socialist-Revolutionaries). In the years 1911-17 attended a course of Romance Philology at St. Petersburg University.
The first poem of the poet was published in 1910. Mandelstam first became interested in symbolism, but then joined the Gumilevsky "workshop of poets."
In 1928, Mandelstam and his wife Nadezhda moved from Leningrad to Moscow. There until 1933, when they finally gave "living space", the family had to wander in the rented apartment. He earned Mandelstam, mostly translations. Last lifetime collection of his poems was released in 1928.
Mandelstam revolutionary ideals were close, but their interpretation of the Bolsheviks aroused ardent protest poet. In 1933, there is an epigram against Stalin "We live under him not feeling the country", which became one of the reasons for the arrest of Mandelstam in 1934 and 1938. Osip Emshevich died in a transit camp in Vladivostok.
In half a revolution of sadness,
Looked at the indifferent.
Dropping the shoulders, turned to stone
The ominous voice - the bitter hops -
Soul unfetters bowels:
So - indignant Phaedra -
Rachel once stood.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak
(January 29 (February 10), 1890, Moscow, Russian Empire - May 30, 1960, Peredelkino, Moscow region, USSR) - Russian poet and writer of Jewish origin, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (1958).
In 1935, Pasternak had stood up for her husband and son Akhmatova, who had been released from prison after a letter to Stalin Pasternak and Akhmatova. In 1937 he showed great moral courage - refuses to sign the letter of approval of execution of Tukhachevsky and others defiantly visiting the home of a repressed Pilnyak. 1942-1943 had been evacuated in Chistopol. Monetary helped many people, including the daughter of Marina Tsvetaeva.
In 1952, Pasternak first heart attack occurred as described in the poem "In the hospital," full of deep religious feeling.
I think I will pick up the words,
Similar to your savagery.
A mistaken - I do Trin-Trava,
I still will not part with an error.
I hear the patter of wet roofs,
End plates stalled eclogite.
Some city clear from the first row,
Growing and is given to each syllable.
Around the spring, but not for the city.
More strict zakazchitsa buying.
His eyes were watering a lamp for sewing,
Lights Dawn, back without straightening.
Inhaling gave Ladoga surface,
Hastening to the water, humbling forces of decay.
With such gulyanok nothing to take.
Channels smell musty pilings.
According to him dive like an empty nut,
A hot wind rustles and eyelids
Branches, and the stars and lights, and milestones
And gazing into the distance from the bridge seamstress.
Sometimes the eye differently sharp,
A different way is accurate.
But the most terrible strength solution -
A night under the gaze of the distance the white night.
So I see your face and eyes.
He did not so ingrained pillar of salt
Whom you were five years ago
Funk pinned regard to rhyme,
But based on your first books
Where proved invaluable nuggets of prose intently,
He and all, as a spark conductor
Events come true makes the beat. 1929
Marina Tsvetaeva (1892-1941)
She was born in Moscow on 26 September 1892. Marina's father was a university professor, a mother - a pianist. In the biography of Tsvetaeva began writing poetry at the age of 6 years. She was trained in Moscow, then in Switzerland, Germany and France.
His first collection of poems was published in Tsvetaeva 1910 ("Evening Album"). Then Tsvetaeva addressed to the creation of articles, and in 1912 she released her second collection of poems, "The Magic Lantern". In the same year married Sergei Efron, they have a daughter, Ariadne.
In 1914, the biography of Marina Tsvetaeva completed a new feeling to the poet Sofia Parnok. Their romance lasted until 1916. Marina then returned to her husband. During the Civil War (1917-1922) for Tsvetaeva poetry is a means to express sympathy. In addition to poetry, she has been writing plays.
In 1922, Tsvetaeva moved to Berlin, the Czech Republic, then back to Berlin. Tsvetaeva's poetry includes works of those years "Poem of the mountain", "Poem of the End". In 1925 she had a son, George. 1922-1925 Tsvetaeva's poems have been published in the book "After Russia" (1928). However, the poem did not bring her popularity abroad. In the biography of Tsvetaeva during emigration increasing recognition of prose.
Having lived 1930 years in a distressed state, in 1939 Tsvetaeva returned to the Soviet Union. Her daughter and her husband's arrest, Sergei shot in 1941, and his daughter after 15 years exonerated. August 31, 1941 Tsvetaeva committed suicide.
Tsvetaeva, who first read poems Akhmatova, apparently, in 1912, was fascinated by her poetry, as well as the person who stood for poetry. She had created an image of "fatal beauty", called her "muse Pla` cha "and" Anna Chrysostom All Russia. " Really wanted to meet and went in 1916 in St. Petersburg with a sense of desire and rivalry: Moscow vs. St. Petersburg. But the meeting did not take place: Akhmatova was sick and was in Tsarskoye Selo. Later, when Tsvetaeva would write to her enthusiastic letters, Akhmatova treat him with her usual restraint.
It remains to be reminded of their meeting, many times already described. They saw 7 and 8 June 1941, before the war, in Moscow, where Akhmatova came to plead for her son. On the content of their conversation almost nothing is known. We only know that Akhmatova more silent, and Tsvetaeva lot and nervously said. Apparently, they apparently are not particularly like each other. "It's just - the lady," - replied indifferently Tsvetaeva in response to someone's question agitated. Akhmatova also humorously remarked: "It was a dry, like a dragonfly." And another interviewee: "In comparison, I heifer."
The definite and mutual curiosity to each other, of course, very faded under the weight of sorrow and trouble, falling on the shoulders of both. However, the attempt of creative communication poets did take place. And turned into a mutual misunderstanding, unmet, as it could be said Tsvetaeva. She read (and gave Akhmatova) "Poem of the Air." Akhmatova read the beginning of the treasured "Poem Without a Hero", the work on which she would later dedicate a lot of years - a poem about the obsession shadows of the past century. (Recall that a new "no calendar» XX century for Anna Akhmatova began with the War of 1914 marked the beginning of the death of her Russian). When Tsvetaeva listened to the chapter "Tails", which like "undercurrent" were the motives of the "Requiem" - hardly something she knew, the "Requiem" also had no idea at all, and these poems are deeply hidden away and read a few. .. She could perceive only what lay on the surface: convention, the theatricality of names. "We must have great courage to write in '41 on Harlequin, Columbine and Pierrot" - recalls the words Akhmatova Tsvetaeva.
In turn Akhmatova took Tsvetaeva "Poem of the Air", addressed to the memory of Rainer Maria Rilke - brilliant poem of death, leaving a poem, a poem of parting with the earth element, the transition into a great poem element of Spirit, Mind, Creativity. "Marina went into nonsense - Akhmatova wrote many years later, in 1959, the" Poem of the Air. " - It was close to the framework of Poetry ... She was a little disaster, and she went to another or others. "
Two great poet did not understand each other. So what happens is too great was the creative individuality of each. And the situation in Russia was not conducive to detailed, frank relationship. On the understanding it takes time - it was not.
Narrow, non-Russian camp -
Shawl of the Turkish countries
Fell as a robe.
You pass them one
A broken black line.
Cold - a cheerful, heat -
In your dismay.
All your life - chills,
And the end - what is it?
Cloud - dark - forehead
The young demon.
Each of the Earth
You tune - a trifle!
And unarmed verse
At the heart of our aims.
In the morning sleepy hour
- It seems that a quarter of the fifth -
I love you,